The international comparative study
When metro systems will be able to enter the new era of crime
control depends on a number of factors. First of all, the available
but scattered knowledge on effective crime prevention techniques
must be collected and modelled into a newly integrated approach.
The latest scientific knowledge on criminal opportunity must be
pitted against the practical experiences of metro companies. Information
on successful strategies must be gathered in different parts of
the world and a scientific model must be developed. This scientific
model must give insight into the best combination of prevention
strategies within metro systems and their relationship with crime
and criminal opportunity. But more important, the model must be
translated into concrete and practical guidelines. A set of requirements
must be developed that gives detailed information on how the (abstract)
scientific criteria can be translated into concrete construction
and management of the metro system. These guidelines must be internationally
applicable, clearly formulated, and easy to implement. They must
be useful for the construction and security organisation of new
metro systems as well as for the improvement, reconstruction,
extension, and reorganisation of existing metro systems.
To meet all these needs, an international comparative study was
started on the relationship between criminal opportunity and the
construction and management of metro systems.
Objectives of the international comparative research were:
· to gain insight into the factors that influence criminal
opportunity in metro systems (theoretical relevance) and
· formulation of practical guidelines for the improvement
of public safety in existing and future metro systems (practical
To achieve these objectives, a research design was chosen in
which lessons are gained from the experiences of existing metro
systems in Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the United States.
During a period of 21 months a total of twelve metro systems were
visited, observed and photographed. These are the metro systems
of Tokyo, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taipei, New York, Washington D.C.,
São Paulo, Prague, Budapest, Amsterdam, London, and Paris.
Existing documentation and crime statistics were collected and
analyzed. Constructional aspects of the systems were photographed
and studied on location. In six of the twelve metro systems, proper
authorities were contacted and interviewed on their crime prevention
approaches, problems, and experiences. These are the authorities
from the metro systems of Hong Kong, Singapore, Taipei, São
Paulo, Amsterdam and London.